Technology featured very strongly in the survey as an enabler for the transition. To what extent are the key technologies for the energy transition available – and are they affordable?
Seb Henbest: You can divide the climate technology we need into two buckets. The first contains the things you can deploy today. This includes mature and commercially available clean technology such as wind and solar power, batteries, electric vehicles and heat pumps. The challenge for these is to scale up supply chains so you can deploy them fast enough this decade to get on track for net-zero. The second bucket includes technology that aren't yet economic or are still in pilot and development stage - this includes things like hydrogen, synthetic fuels and carbon capture and storage. These technologies still need a lot of investment and production scale to get to where they need to be by 2030, so that they can play a big role over the subsequent 20 years to 2050.
Right now, it’s cheaper to build wind or solar generation in many countries than it is to run existing coal and gas-fired power plants, so it’s really a matter of getting more and more of this stuff in the ground. And we're only a few years away from the same thing for electric vehicles. Whether you are a household or a big multinational company, it’s your technology decisions that are going to make the difference here.